Hutsul embroidery

Features of the Carpathian embroidery

One of the most common and most affordable types of Ukrainian folk art is embroidery. In Ukrainian folk embroidery, there are common features inherent in all regions of Ukraine, with clearly local differences, logically reasonable by geographical, historical and social factors.

The life of the people in a particular environment, their life, mores, nature, work skills, understanding of beauty criteria contribute to the distinctive principles of separated centers, districts and villages. The object of our attention is the local features of embroidery art Hutsul and Pokuttya.
In such embroidery spelling of the Carpathians as hutsuls archaic folk ornament are preserved. Numerous historical, folkloric and literary materials confirm massive existence of apparel destination in Hutsul embroidery.

Each epoch has made some changes in the art of embroidery in Hutsul region. The appearance of arbitrary interpretation of plant motifs – is a rare phenomenon, and it is influenced by neighboring nations’ embroidery. In general, a Hutsul embroidery had and constantly developed of ancient geometric basis. Hutsul masters discovered a deep understanding of beauty, a kind of poetry geometric and graphic lines, harmonies of form and rhythm.

Characteristic feature of Hutsul embroidery

The characteristic feature of Hutsul embroidery XIX – XX centuries – is polychrome, juicy, rich, full of wonderful strength of decorative sound. It reflects all the colors of the spectral range. The dominant red color in different nuances of sounding – from the darkest to the intense orange-golden hue. In relation to its sounding introduced yellow, green, blue, black colors. Yes, embroidery of Verkhovyna area is dominated by purple-violet colors, embroidery of Yavoriv, Richky, Brustoriv is dominated by blue and green. There are the most famous allocated centers of Hutsul embroidery embroidery, especially Verkhovyna, Krivorivnya, Kosiv, Brustoriv, Kosmach, Yavoriv, Krasnoyilova, Vyzhnytsya, Putila, Yasinia, Yaremche, Rakhiv, Bogdan, Kosiv meadow. Along with the dominant technique of embroidery there were also distributing cross covering, grid, lace, curly seam.

Kosiv style of Hutsul embroidery

Kosiv style of Hutsul embroidery characterized by mutual influence of traditional Hutsul embroidery techniques with embroidery areas of Pokuttya and Bukovina. This was contributed by the geographical location of Kosiv on the trade route and fairs, where as if on display, colorful embroidery sounded like absorb hundreds and hundreds of women and goods intended for sale. The possibility of exploring other areas of embroidery, caused to create new methods of Kosiv embroidery masters for embroidery location on the components of clothing, fabrics of interior destination.

Of course, Hutsul embroidery developed a single line of western embroidery art based on ancient art under the influence of specific local factors that it has allocated a separate explicit local phenomenon. Deep artistic traditions of Hutsul embroidery clothes can be seen on the base of many embroidery designs at end of XVIII – early XIX centuries which are  kept in museums in Ukraine, particularly in Kolomyya Museum of Folk Art of the Hutsul and Pokuttya.

Collection of embroidery shirts, covers etc. indicates a high artistic level of ornamental embroidery art of hutsuls.

Over the years, the collective genius of folk artists cultivated clear art system, which is mutually conditioned by factors of material, techniques, ornamentation, composition and coloring.

In Hutsul area, as well as in all other regions of Ukraine, embroidery adorned some of the details of clothes. This are women’s, men’s, children’s shirts, hats (covers, scarves), breast clothing (keptars, serdaks, baybaraks, coats, manta rays, googls), waist clothing (gachs, portyanytsyas, kapchurs, slippers, leggings).

Properties of linen and woolen fabrics, cloth, leather, used for clothing, prompted widespread nature and structure of the material, which was done by embroidery.

Basic materials of embroidery are ­- handmade linen, woolen yarn, woolen thread (“kotsyk”), woven cords, silk, metal, silver, gold thread, floss, beads, sequins, sap’yanovyy ribbons, buttons, coral head metal nails (baize) kapslyas. The of fur fox, marten and ferret – are like applications. The mid-nineteenth century is a start of often use in embroidery factory yarns – like volichka, zapoloch and in the early twentieth century – SIC threads, Molyneux, beads, silk. Beadwork common in areas bordering mountain Bukovina.

Technique of Hutsul embroidery

Richness of Hutsul embroidery is demonstrated even in a variety of technical performance. Volodymyr Shukhevych in his fundamental work “Hutsulschyna” shows 12 Hutsul embroidery techniques: nyzynka of two kinds of feather stitch, network, obmitka, pigtail, stitch “back needle” (“stick”) shtapivka (“grid”) covering (“sosnivka” ), (“cross”), bilateral feather stitch (“braided cord”, “with network-circus”).

A common technique of embroidery – nyzynka (the low embroidery). Probably none of all embroidery techniques over the years has not experienced such a complex process of crystallization of artistic and stylistic canons as the low.

This technique inherent high artistic and technical skill. The old embroidery motifs circuit always performed with black thread, and the scheme, pattern and background – in color. Local art feature Hutsul embroidery – is in a polychromatic and ornamental decision.

Hutsul embroidery ornament

An outstanding feature is its Hutsul embroidery geometric pattern. It includes simple motifs and complex shaped elements, motifs – complexes. This are rhomb, half rhomb, differently combined horizontally or vertically.

Apart from rhomb, there are widespread in traditional geometric patterns Hutsul embroidery which are square, triangle, circle, sideways-like figure, crosses, teeth, hair, meander, network and so on. These basic geometric shapes create different combinations of tape composition. These motifs are known in the art of the Eastern Slavs in the X – XIII centuries already.

One of them is a geometrization of plant and other forms of visual and a transformation of geometric motifs into images of people, animals, birds, plants and more.

In Hutsul embroidery preserved geometrical anthropomorphic, zoomorphic motifs. They can be seen on women’s outerwear embroidery: on serdaks, keptarys, housings and googls.

The composition of Hutsul embroidery

A typical composition Hutsul embroidery is different in width tape strips, a report of which consists of one, two or more motifs. They are strictly symmetrical, according to the ornamental mesh created with complex vertical, horizontal, oblique, lines and curves that establish appropriate fancy rhythms.

The following light ribbon embroidery compositions are placed for stitching clothes in separate parts: serdaks’ sleeves, casings, manta rays, trouser leg bottom, sides, socks, kapchurs.

Monumental sounding is out by two or three-row composition in winder pattern and sleeves of women’s and men’s shirts.

Hutsul area is characterized by the square rosette and composition with numerous variations of contour frame. Considered kinds of embroideries reveal a complex system of ornamentation, characteristic of a particular technique, material and purpose.

One of the characteristics of folk art decor is a combination of form and function of clothing. The composition patterns is subordinated cut of shirts and at the same time – the harmony of the whole thing. Expressive lines of cut are a kind of decoration, which support the overall sound seamstress of the shirt.

Peculiarities of distinctive features of the sharpest embroidery can be traced to embroidery shirts of individual centers. All kosmat patterns have geometric structure. Craftswomen developed their patterns so much that they created a specific style of embroidery of Kosmat. The geometric structure is stable kosmat’s ornament artistic tradition that goes back in centuries.

Patterns of Kosmach embroidery

Patterns of Kosmach embroidery in poetic form reflect the world around us – it’s “rizhkati”, “putter”, “letyechs”, “pushkats”, “coachman”, “oak leaf”, “bezkonechnyk”, “plum”, “cherry”, “skosyks “,” knihenkovs “, “barankovs”,” chicken legs “. Their names are defined by how to lean on a particular subject, skillfully and poetically moved to the embroidery, perfectly naturally woven into a single ornamental body.

The History of Carpathian embroidery

At the beginning of XX century, along with “brass” shirts were decorated by  “morschinky” embroidery patterns of small figure, which has rhomb as the main motive. Rhombus were concluded close to each other or created a rhombic grid. Their contours were decorated with small scallops, rhombus or decorative twisted curls.

The high artistic taste was found in embroidery ornaments layout and color selection. Embroideries performed mostly by the low embroidery and covering with black or dark brown stains.

In the 1930s and especially in the post-war period Verhovinsky vustavky (patterns) change their character. There are new, complex forms, motifs and composition patterns. Motives are getting bigger, there is a  tendency to decoration, saturation and compositional patterns in color terms. Covering of the low embroidery become larger, resulting ornament motives appear as bright spots in large black stains. Vustavkas (patterns) are much broader than in the past – 20-25 cm on either side of the average pattern are colorful translated laces and wide surface. Some vustavkas on both sides of the main pattern embroidered scheme between laces and surface.

Modern Verkhovyna vustavkas is characterised by that along with the traditional, strictly geometric forms there are appeared geometrical floral motifs, “oak leaf”, “cabbage point”, “chichkatyy”.

After the war, shirts of factory canvas appeared and embroidery made on hand woven canvas and then only sew in the finished shirt.

The names of embroidery pieces indicate that they were borrowed from nature, wildlife and are specific only to the villages above: “beetles”, “chicken legs”, “elephant”, “deer”. There are also compositions with decorative images of bunnies and deer among geometric and plant forms. This is an obvious impact of the print designs.

Motives are often embroidered by intense yellow, orange colors on a black background, providing interesting decorative patterns, achievements of color contrast.

In the XVIII century women’s shirt without a collar were gathered around the neck as in other Eastern nations, as well as Bulgarians, Slovaks. At the beginning of XIX century narrow collars has appeared. There are interesting shirt cuts with so-called “tsvykolyamy” – armpits wedges. In the middle of the XIX century on the sleeves there were “sovnivky” embroidery – broken lines that created stretched rhomb.

New women’s shirt had embroidered narrow collar, which had tiebacks – “oschynkas”, and later – pearl buttons. In the second half of the XIX century embroidered patterns were on separate pieces of fabric that later were sewn to the shirt.

Especially famous were embroidery Kosiv, villages Rivers, Pistyn, Kosmach, Verkhovyna. Each of these settlements were characterized by their artistic style features of folk embroidered shirts, tablecloths, towels, napkins.

Development of Hutsul embroidery

Of course, Hutsul embroidery developed in a single line of western embroidery art based on ancient art under the influence of specific local factors that allocated it as a separate explicit local phenomenon. On deep artistic traditions of Hutsul clothes embroidery can be shown from many embroidery designs of end XVIII – early XIX centuries which are kept in museums in Ukraine, particularly in Kolomyya Museum of Folk Art of the Hutsul and Pokuttya.

Collection of embroidery shirts, covers etc. indicates a high artistic level of ornamental embroidery art of hutsuls.

Over the years, the collective genius of folk artists created clear art system in which factors of material, techniques, ornamentation, composition, color mutually conditioned.

In Hutsul area, as well as in all other regions of Ukraine, some of the details of clothes are adorned by embroidery. Those are women’s, men’s, children’s shirts, hats (covers, scarves), breast clothing (keptars, serdaks, baybaraks, coats, manta rays, googls), waist clothing (gachi, portyanytyasi, kapchurs, slippers, leggings).

Properties of linen and woolen fabrics, cloth, leather, used for clothing, prompted widespread nature and structure of the material, which was done by embroidery.

Basic materials of embroidery – hand made linen, woolen yarn, woolen thread (“kotsyk”), woven cords, silk, metal, silver, gold thread, molyneux, beads, sequins, sap’yanovyy ribbons, buttons, coral head metal nails (baize), kapslyas. The fur of fox, marten and ferret are like applications. From the mid-nineteenth century for embroidery factory start yarn are often use such as volichka, zapoloch and in the early twentieth century – SIC threads, molyneux, beads, silk. Beadwork common in areas which bordering mountain in Bukovina.

Technology of Hutsul embroidery

Richness of Hutsul embroidery is demonstrated even in a variety of technical performance. Vladimir Shukhevych in his fundamental work “Hutsulschyna” shows 12 Hutsul embroidery techniques: nyzynka of two kinds of feather stitch, network, obmitka, pigtail, stitch “back needle” (“stick”) shtapivka (“grid”) covering (“sosnivka” ), (“cross”), bilateral feather stitch (“braided cord”, “with network-circus”).

A common technique of embroidery – nyzynka (the low embroidery). Probably none of all embroidery techniques over the years has not experienced such a complex process of crystallization of artistic and stylistic canons as the low.

This technique inherent high artistic and technical skill. The old embroidery motifs circuit always performed with black thread, and the scheme, pattern and background – in color. Local art feature Hutsul embroidery – is in a polychromatic and ornamental decision.

An outstanding feature is its Hutsul embroidery geometric pattern. It includes simple motifs and complex shaped elements, motifs – complexes. This are rhomb, half rhomb, differently combined horizontally or vertically.

Apart from rhomb, there are widespread in traditional geometric patterns Hutsul embroidery which are square, triangle, circle, sideways-like figure, crosses, teeth, hair, meander, network and so on. These basic geometric shapes create different combinations of tape composition. These motifs are known in the art of the Eastern Slavs in the X – XIII centuries already.

One of them is a geometrization of plant and other forms of visual and a transformation of geometric motifs into images of people, animals, birds, plants and more.

In Hutsul embroidery preserved geometrical anthropomorphic, zoomorphic motifs. They can be seen on women’s outerwear embroidery: on serdaks, keptarys, housings and googls.

The compositionof Hutsul embroidery

A typical composition Hutsul embroidery is different in width tape strips, a report of which consists of one, two or more motifs. They are strictly symmetrical, according to the ornamental mesh created with complex vertical, horizontal, oblique, lines and curves that establish appropriate fancy rhythms.

The following light ribbon embroidery compositions are placed for stitching clothes in separate parts: serdaks’ sleeves, casings, manta rays, trouser leg bottom, sides, socks, kapchurs.

Monumental sounding is out by two or three-row composition in winder pattern and sleeves of women’s and men’s shirts.

Hutsul area is characterized by the square rosette and composition with numerous variations of contour frame. Considered kinds of embroideries reveal a complex system of ornamentation, characteristic of a particular technique, material and purpose.

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